At completion of the course participants reaching basic level will be able:
• To recognize common rocks and minerals in hand specimen.
• To measure the orientation in space of planar and linear structural elements (beddings, unconformities, foliations, lineations, fold axis, etc).
• To report field observations on a map.
• To construct cross-sections.
• To plot structural planar and linear elements on an equal-area stereonet canvas.
At an advanced level participants will be able:
• To map the tectono-lithostratigraphic units in multiply-deformed metamorphic terranes.
• To perform basic structural analyses at outcrop scale.
• To perform basic analyses of regional metamorphic zonation.
• To Integrate sedimentological, structural, and metamorphic observation into a valid geological models.
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This excursion forms the total course-work demand for GEOS 3008, Field Geology and Geophysics (at Sydney Uni) or GEOS 307, Field Geology and Mapping (at Macquarie).
The assessment is based on a A3 poster, including cross sections and block diagrams, summarizing the geological history of the mapped area (30%), individual geological map (30%), individual notebook (20%), exam (20%, on compulsory reading, sample analysis and structural geology). A penalty of up to 25 marks will be removed from your final mark should your behavior as a team member (including your participation in the field) and your involvement on all activities (including camp duties) be unsactisfactory.
Although some exercises are group-based all reports are on an individual basis and are due at an appropriate time but before returning to Broken Hill.
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Assumed Knowledge and References
To complete the exercises of this field course you should be familiar with the following concepts and tasks:
• Stratigraphy: Proterozoic time scale.
• Petrography/Sedimentology: Identification of common sedimentary rokcs. Concept of unconformity, concept of basins.
• Petrography/Igneous: Identification of common rock forming minerals, identification of common igneous rocks.
• Petrography/Metamorphism: Identification of common rock forming minerals, concept of metamorphic facies.
• Structural Geology: Basic analyses of faults, folds, and shear-zones. Basic knowledge of cleavages, foliations, lineations. Concept of vergence and kinematic indicators. Basic knowledge on stereonet techniques.
•Tectonics: Basic understanding of phases of deformation, fold superimposition, tectonic regimes, structural levels.
The train trip out presents an excellent opportunity to read some relevant papers on the area. From the following list those marked * are compulsory reading before your arrival in Broken Hill. A PDF file of all compulsory papers can be downloaded form the following list.
Ashley, P.M., 1984. Sodic granitoids and felsic gneisses associated with uranium-thorium mineralization, Crockers Well, South Australia. Mineralium Deposita, 19, 7-18.
Ashley, P.M., Cook, N.D.J. & Fanning, C.M., 1996. Geochemistry and age of metamorphosed felsic igneous rocks with A-type affinities in the Willyama Supergroup, Olary Block, South Australia, and implications for mineral exploration. Lithos, 38, 167-184.
Bierlein, F.P., 1995. Rare earth element geochemistry of clastic and chemical metasedimentary rocks associated with hydrothermal sulphide mineralization in the Olary Block, South Australia. Chemical Geology, 122, 77-98.
Bierlein, F.P., Ashley, P.M. & Seccombe, P.K., 1996. Origin of hydrothermal Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization in the Olary Block, South Australia: evidence from fluid inclusions and sulphur isotopes. Precambrian Research, 79, 281-305.
Bierlein, F.P., Haack, U., Forster, B & Plimer, I.R., 1996. Lead isotope study on hydrothermal sulphide mineralization in the Willyama Supergroup, Olary Block, South Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 43, 177-187.
Berry, R.F., Flint, R.B. & Grady, A.E., 1978. Deformation history of the Outalpa area and its application to the Olary Province, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 102, 43-54.
* Clarke, G.L., Burg, J.P. & Wilson, C.J.L., 1986. Stratigraphic and structural constraints on the Proterozoic tectonic history of the Olary Block, South Australia. Precambrian Research, 34, 107-138.
* Clarke, G. L., Guiraud, M., Powell, R. & Burg, J.-P. 1987. Metamorphism in the Olary Block, South Australia: compression with cooling in a Proterozoic fold belt. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 5, 291-306.
Clarke, G.L. & Powell, R., 1989. Basement-cover interaction in the Adelaide Foldbelt, South Australia: the development of an arcuate foldbelt. Tectonophysics , 158, 209-226.
Coates, R.P. & Blisset, A.H., 1971. Regional and economic geology of the Mt. Painter province. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of South Australia, v. 43. Adelaide.
Cook, N. & Ashley, P., 1992. Meta-evaporite sequence, exhalative chemical sediments and associated rocks in the Proterozoic Willyama Supergroup, South Australia: implications for metalogenesis. Precambrian Research, 56, 211-226.
Daily, B., 1956. The Cambrian in South Australia. In: El Sistema Cambrico, su palaeogeographia y el problema de su base. (Report of the 20th International Geological Congress , Mexico 1956), 2: 91-147.
Daily, B., 1963. The fossiliferous Cambrian succession on Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia. Record of the South Australian Mus., 14, 579-601.
Daily, B., Jago, J.P. & Milnes, A.R., 1973. Large scale horizontal displacements within Australo-Antarctica in the Ordovician, Reply. Nature Physical Science, 244, 61-64.
Dalgarno, C.R., 1964. Lower Cambrian stratigraphy of the Flinders Ranges. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 88, 129-144.
Ehlers, K. & Nutman, A.P., 1997. Thermochronological evolution of the Willyama Complex. In: Geodynamics and Ore deposits Conference, 26-28 (abstract).
England, P.C. & Richardson, S.W., 1977. The influence of erosion upon the mineral facies of rocks from different metamorphic environments. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 134, 201-213.
Etheridge, M.A. & Cooper, J.A., 1981. Rb/Sr isotope and geochemical evolution of a recrystallised shear (mylonite) zone at Broken Hill. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 78, 74-84.
Forbes, B.G. & Pitt, G.M., 1980. Geology of the Olary Region.South Australian Department of Mines and Energy, Report, BO/151
Hayden, R.C. & McConachy, G.W., 1987. The stratigraphic setting of Pb-Zn-Ag mineralisation at Broken Hill. Economic Geology, 82, 826-856.
Hobbs, B.E., 1966. The structural environment of the northern part of the Broken Hill orebody. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 13, 315-318.
Hobbs, B. E., Archibald, N. J., Etheridge, M. A. & Wall, V. J., 1984. Tectonic history of the Broken Hill Block, Australia. In: A Kroner and R. Greiling (Editors). Precambrian Tectonics Illustrated. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 353-368.
*Laing, W.P., 1996. Stratigraphic sub-division of the Willyama Supergroup, Olary domain, South Australia. MESA Journal, 2, 39-48.
Marjoribanks, R.W, Rutland, R.W.R., Glen, R.A. & Laing, W.P.,1980. The structure and tectonic evolution of the Broken Hill Region, Australia. Precambrian Research, 13, 209-240.
Mavrogenes, J., MacIntosh, I.W. & Ellis, D.J., 2001. Partial melting of the Broken Hill Galena-Spalerite ore - Experimental studies in the system PbS-FeS-ZnS-Ag2S. Economic Geology ,96 ,205-210 .
Mawson, D., 1911. Chiastolites from Bimbowrie, South Australia. Memoirs of the Royal Society of South Australia, 11, 210pp.
Mawson, D., 1912. Geological investigations in the Broken Hill area. Memoirs of the Royal Society of South Australia, 11, 211-319.
Mawson, D. and Sprigg, R.C., 1950. Subdivision of the Adelaide System. Australian Journal of Science, 13, 69-72.
*Paul, E., Sandiford, M. & Flottmann, T., 2000. Structural geometry of a thick-skinned fold-thrust belt termination: the Olary Block in the Adelaide Fold Belt, South Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 47, 281-290.
Phillips, G. N. 1980. Water activity changes across an amphibolite-granulite facies transition, Broken Hill, Australia. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 75, 377-386.
Phillips, G. N. & Wall, V. J. 1981. Evaluation of prograde metamorphic conditions: their implications for the heat source and water activity during metamorphism in the Willyama Complex, Broken Hill, Australia. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie , 104, 801-810.
Plimer, I.R., 1984. The mineralogical history of the Broken Hill lode, NSW. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 31, 379-402.
Pitt, G.M., 1977. Willyama Complex Excursion: 27 March to 7 April, 1977. South Australian Department of Mines and Energy, Report, 77/56.
*Preiss, W.V. & Forbes, B.G., 1981. Stratigraphy, correlation and sedimentary history of Adelaide (late Proterozoic) basins in Australia. Precambrian Research, 15, 255-304.
Preiss, W.V., Rutland, R.W.R. & Murrell, B., 1981. The Precambrian of South Australia. In: Precambrian of the Southern Hemisphere (ed Hunter, E.R.), pp. 309-360. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Rutland, R.W.R. & Etheridge, M.A., 1975. Two high grade schistosities at Broken Hill and their relation to major and minor structures. Journal of the Geological. Society of Australia, 22, 259-274.
Shackleton, R.M. & Ries, A.C.,1984. The relation between regionally consistent stretching lineations and plate motions. Journal of Structural Geology, 6, 111-117.
Sprigg, R.C., 1936. Reconnaissance geological survey of portion of the western escarpment of the Mt. Lofty Ranges. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 70, 313-347.
Sprigg, R.C., 1952. Sedimentation in the Adelaide Geosyncline and the formation of the continental terrace. In: Sir Douglas Mawson Anniversary Volume (eds Glaessner, M.F. and Sprigg, R.C.) , pp. 153-159. University of Adelaide.
Stevens, B.P.J., 1986. Post-depositional history of the Willyama Supergroup in the Broken Hill Block, N.S.W. Australian Journal of Earth Science, 33, 73-98.
Stevens, B.P.J., Stroud, W.J., Willis, I.L., Bradley, G.M., Brown, R.E. & Barnes, R.G., 1980. A stratigraphic interpretation of the Broken Hill Block. In: A guide to the stratigraphy and mineralization of the Broken Hill Block (ed Stevens, B.P.J.), Records of the Geological Survey of New South Wales, 20, 9-32.
Talbot, J.L. 1967. A subdivision and structure of the Precambrian (Willyama Complex and Adelaide system), Weekeroo, South Australia. Transcactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 91, 45- 58.
Thompson, B.P., 1969b. Precambrian basement cover: the Adelaide System. In: Handbook of South Australian Geology (ed Parkin, L.), pp. 49-83. South Australian Department of Mines and Energy, Adelaide.
Thompson, B.P., 1976. Tectonics and regional geology of theWillyama, Mount Painter and Denison Inliers. In: Economic Geology of Australia and Papua New Guinea (ed Knight, C.L.), pp.469-475. Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
Vernon, R. H. 1968. Microstructures of high-grade metamorphic rocks at Broken Hill, Australia. Journal of Petrology, 9, 1-22.
Vernon, R. H., 1969. The Willyama Complex, Broken Hill area. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 16, 20-65 .
Vernon, R.H. & Ransom, D.M., 1971. Retrograde schists of the amphibolite facies at Broken Hill, New South Wales. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 18, 267-277.
von der Borch, C.C., 1980. Evolution of late Proterozoic to early Palaeozoic Adelaide Fold Belt, Australia: comparisons with post-Permian rifts and passive margins. Tectonophysics, 70, 115-134.
Walters, M.R. & Veevers, J.J., 1997. Australian Neoproterozoic palaeogeography, tectonics and supercontinental connections. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, 17, 73-92.
Willis, I.L., Brown, R.E., Stroud, W.J. & Stevens, B.P.J.,1983. The Early Proterozoic Willyama Supergroup: Stratigraphic sub-division and interpretation of high to low grade metamorphic rocks in the Broken Hill Block, N.S.W. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 30, 195-224.
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Equipment and Cost
Give some thought to the personal equipment that you take on the excursion. Don't just pack the night before!
Notebook, erasers, scale and protractor, grey (HB and 2B) and coloured pencils, geological hammer, hand lens, compass with clinometer, sample bag, and basic first-aid kit, water bottles (at least 2litres), camera. In case you get lost bring matches, a torch and a whistle. Equipment can be bought from Prospectors Supplies at Unit 4, 195 Prospect Road, Seven Hills (ph: 9838 7899).
Map clipboard with waterproof covering will be provided.
Dormitory style accommodation is available at Plumbago station. There are 33 beds distributed over 17 rooms, expect 45+ people...There are 6 showers, 7 toilets. No washing machine, no phone and no Internet.
If you prefer more privacy please bring you own tent and camping gear including sleeping mat (closed cell foam & small waterproof ground sheet - concreting plastic is cheap and robust), In any case you will need a warm sleeping bag, gloves, thermals and a warm hat for cold nights and mornings, crockery and cutlery (knife, fork, spoon, plate, bowl, and mug- please bring all your eating utensils in a cloth or plastic bag with your name on it as there are limited storage facilities), a broad brimmed hat, sun-glasses, sunblock and lip cream, and your own basic first-aid kit and toiletry set. Bring robust and warm clothing, prefer long-sleeved shirt and pants to tee-shirt and shorts. Stout boots are required for mapping and field work. Weather wise expect anything...and be prepared. A rain-proof jacket (for protection from rain and to act as wind-shell) will be handy as well as a serious dose of good humour in case of prolonged rain.
Bring you favorite cold and flu medecine, experience shows that despite best efforts viruses propagate very easily in a confined environment. Bring some ear plugs, the walls are rather thin and you will need some good sleep to recover from long days in the field.
Please email Dave Mitchell: firstname.lastname@example.org at the University of Sydney with any special dietary requirements.
Each participant must pay $685 (ca. $53 per day) to cover the cost of accommodation and food during your stay at Plumago Station, and your transportation from Broken Hill to Plumbago and around.
For Sydney Uni students, this must be paid to the University Cashier (Margaret Telfer Building) no late than two weeks before our departure from Sydney. Please tell the cashier that the credit is for the Broken Hill excursion GEOS3008 and must go into account 3200 L1711 00000.
For Macquarie Uni students, this must be paid to the University Cashier, Student Centre (Lincoln Building) no later than two weeks before our departure from Sydney. Please use the following forms: Macquarie University Payment Form.
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We will stay at Plumbago Station near Manna Hill in South Australia. As guests we will behave at all times with appropriate manners. Please keep noise level to a minimum after 10pm, and do not put in jeopardy your safety and that of your colleagues. To maintain a cordial atmosphere be considerate of other people. Drunkenness is neither tolerated nor it is an excuse for inappropriate behavior.
As with any activities in remote locations we need collectively to be aware and responsible for each other. Let the organizing committee know of any problems or injuries no matter how small. We will collectively be responsible for keeping the facilities clean and in functioning order. Participants will take turns to assist in the preparation of and cleaning up after evening and morning meals under the supervision of the Camp Manager.
Participants are expected to be ready to go by 8.30 am in the morning, field work will be finished by 4.30 pm with everybody at the camp by 5.30 pm. If necessary, group involved in food preparation and cleaning duties will leave late and those involved in the preparation of the evening meal will return earlier.
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Useful Download (Compulsory Enrolment Forms and Policies)
For Sydney University Students: The School of Geosciences form and policy must be read, understood, and signed by every student before attending an excursion. This document has to be returned at the time of payment.
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