The weak zone inside the Earth directly below the lithosphere, from 10 to
200 km below the surface.
back-arc basin: The area behind a subduction related volcanic arc where folds and faults form. Most backarc basins are extending.
collision zone: a belt or region where two sections of lithospheric crust have collided.
geotherm: the change in temperature with respect to change of depth in the Earth
Gravitational Potential Energy: The energy tranfer caused by a change in height above the surface of the Earth or other planet
isostasy: A state of equilibrium, in which segments of earths crust stands at levels determined by their thickness and density
lithosphere: the solid outer shell of the Earth, including the crust and uppermost rigid layer of the mantle.
moho (Mohorovicic discontinuity): the boundary surface that separates the Earth's crust from the mantle
molasse: am association of conglomerates and sandstones deposited as alluvial fans and lucastrine deposits. Rocks of the facies are associated with most mountain ranges and are post-tectonic deposits.
nappe: a large, sheetlike body of rock that has moved a long distance (generally a mile or more) at low angles over the underlying rocks either by over-thrusting or recumbent folding.
ophiolite: a suite of mafic or ultramafic igneous rocks consisting of basalatic pillow-lavas, dolerite dykes, gabbros and peridotites associated with pelagic sediments, which represent segments of oceanic crust emplaced in the continent by plate collisions.
rheology: study of deformation and flow of matter.
subduction: The movement of one lithospheric plate under another so that the descending plate is 'consumed'.
Tethys: a sea that lay between the northern and southern continents of the Eastern Hemisphere of the Permian to the mid-Tertiay periods.
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